• Kindergarten Grade Common Learning Standards
    ELA
    Literature
     
     
    The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate
    exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read
    increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet
    each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in
    preceding grades.
    Key Ideas and Details
    1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
    2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
    3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.
    Craft and Structure
    4. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
    5. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).
    6. With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling
    the story.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they
    appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts).
    8. (Not applicable to literature)
    9. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar
    stories. a. With prompting and support, students will make cultural connections to text and self.
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
    Responding to Literature
    10. With prompting and support, make connections between self, text, and the world around them (text,
    media, social interaction).
    Information Text
    Key Ideas and Details
    1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.
    2. With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.
    3. With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of
    information in a text.
    Craft and Structure
    4. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.
    5. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.
    6. Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information
    in a text.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they
    appear (e.g., what person, place, thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).
    8. With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.
    9. With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same
    topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
    Foundational Skills
    These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts
    of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These
    foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components
    of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to
    comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers
    will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students
    what they need to learn and not what they already know-to discern when particular children or activities
    warrant more or less attention.
    Print Concepts
    1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
    a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.
    b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
    c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
    d. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
    Phonological Awareness
    2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
    a. Recognize and produce rhyming words.
    b. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
    c. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
    d. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme
    (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words.* (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or
    /x/.)
    e. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.
    Phonics and Word Recognition
    3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the
    primary sound or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.
    b. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major
    vowels.
    c. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
    d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
    Fluency
    4. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.
    Writing
    The following standards for K-5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help endure that students gain
    adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should
    demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the
    development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources.
    Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain
    or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.
    Text Types and Purpose
    1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader
    the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or
    book (e.g., My favorite book is . . .).
    2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which
    they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.
    3. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked
    events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.
    Production and Distribution of Writing
    4. (Begins in grade 3)
    5. With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to
    strengthen writing as needed.
    6. With guidance and support from adults, explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing,
    including in collaboration with peers.
    Research to Build and Present Knowledge
    7. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore a number of books by a favorite author and
    express opinions about them).
    8. With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from
    provided sources to answer a question.
    9. (Begins in grade 4)
    Range of Writing
    10. (Begins in grade 3)
    11. Create and/or present a poem, dramatization, art work, or personal response to a particular author or
    theme studied in class, with support as needed.
    Speaking and Listening
    The following standards for K-5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain
    adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications.
    Comprehension and Collaboration
    1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers
    and adults in small and larger groups.
    a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the
    topics and texts under discussion).
    b. Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
    c. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds.
    2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking
    and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.
    3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.
    Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
    4. Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional
    detail.
    5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.
    6. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.
    Language
    Conventions of Standard English
    1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    a. Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
    b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
    c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
    d. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
    e. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
    f. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.
    2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when
    writing.
    a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
    b. Recognize and name end punctuation.
    c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
    d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
    Knowledge of Language
    3. (Begins in grade 2)
    Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
    4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten
    reading and content.
    a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and
    learning the verb to duck).
    b. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to
    the meaning of an unknown word.
    5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
    a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories
    represent.
    b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their
    opposites (antonyms).
    c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
    d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut,
    prance) by acting out the meanings.
    6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.