• Fifth Grade Common Learning Standards
    ELA
     
     
    Literature
     
    The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate
    exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read
    increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet
    each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in
    preceding grades.
     
    Key Ideas and Details
     
    1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences
    from the text.
    2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or
    drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
    3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific
    details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).
    Craft and Structure
    4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as
    metaphors and similes.
    5. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a
    particular story, drama, or poem.
    6. Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.
    a. Recognize and describe how an author’s background and culture affect his or her perspective.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g.,
    graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).
    8. (Not applicable to literature)
    9. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to
    similar themes and topics.
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end
    of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
    Responding to Literature
    11. Recognize, interpret, and make connections in narratives, poetry, and drama, to other texts, ideas, cultural
    perspectives, eras, personal events, and situations.
    a. Self-select text to develop personal preferences regarding favorite authors.
    b. Use established criteria to categorize, select texts and assess to make informed judgments about the quality
    of the pieces.
     
    Information Text
    Key Ideas and Details
     
    1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences
    from the text.
    2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize
    the text.
    3. Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a
    historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.
    Craft and Structure
    4. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a
    grade 5 topic or subject area.
    5. Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution)
    of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.
    6. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the
    point of view they represent.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to
    a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.
    8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which
    reasons and evidence support which point(s).
    9. Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject
    knowledgeably.
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science,
    and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
     
    Foundational Skills
     
    These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts
    of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic conventions of the English writing system. These
    foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components
    of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to
    comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers
    will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach students
    what they need to learn and not what they already know-to discern when particular children or activities
    warrant more or less attention.
     
    Phonics and Word Recognition
     
    1. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
    a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and
    morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context
    and out of context.
    Fluency
    2. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
    a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
    b. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on
    successive readings.
    c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
     
    Writing
     
    The following standards for K-5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help endure that students gain
    adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should
    demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the
    development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources.
    Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain
    or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.
     
    Text Types and Purposes
     
    1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which
    ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
    b. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    c. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
    d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
    2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
    a. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information
    logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding
    comprehension.
    b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and
    examples related to the topic.
    c. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in
    contrast, especially).
    d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
    3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive
    details, and clear event sequences.
    a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize
    an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and
    events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    c. Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
    d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
     
    Production and Distribution of Writing
     
    4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task,
    purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) a.
    Produce text (print or nonprint) that explores a variety of cultures and perspectives.
    5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning,
    revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
    6. With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish
    writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding
    skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.
    Research to Build and Present Knowledge
    7. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of
    different aspects of a topic.
    8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources;
    summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.
    9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    a. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings,
    or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact”).
    b. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and
    evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which
    point[s]”).
     
    Range of Writing
     
    10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time
    frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
    11. Create and present an original poem, narrative, play, art work, or literary critique in response to a particular
    author or theme studied in class.
    a. Recognize and illustrate social, historical, and cultural features in the presentation of literary texts.
    Speaking and Listening
    The following standards for K-5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain
    adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications.
    Comprehension and Collaboration
    1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with
    diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that
    preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and
    elaborate on the remarks of others.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained
    from the discussions.
    e. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different perspectives and cultural
    backgrounds.
    f. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic, as well as culture, to think analytically,
    address problems creatively, and advocate persuasively.
    2. Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including
    visually, quantitatively, and orally.
    3. Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.
    Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
    4. Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and
    relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
    5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate
    to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
    6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation.
     
    Language
    Conventions of Standard English
     
    1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in
    particular sentences.
    b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
    c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
    d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.*
    e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).
    2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when
    writing.
    a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.*
    b. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
    c. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the
    rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
    d. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
    e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.
    Knowledge of Language
    3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
    b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or
    poems.
    Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
    4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5
    reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a
    word or phrase.
    b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a
    word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
    c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to
    find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
    5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    a. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
    b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
    c. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better
    understand each of the words.
    6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases,
    including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although,
    nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).