• Sixth Grade Common Learning Standards
    ELA
     
     
    Literature
     
    The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate
    exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read
    increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each
    year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.
     
    Key Ideas and Details
     
    1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the
    text.
    2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a
    summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
    3. Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters
    respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.
     
    Craft and Structure
     
    4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative
    meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
    5. Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanzas fits into the overall structure of a text and
    contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.
    6. Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.
    a. Explain how an author’s geographic location or culture affects his or her perspective.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio,
    video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to
    what they perceive when they listen or watch.
    8. (Not applicable to literature)
    9. Compare and contrast texts in the different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and
    fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band
    proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
    Responding to Literature
    11. Recognize, interpret, and make connections in narratives, poetry, and drama, ethically and artistically to
    other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, eras, personal events, and situations.
    a. Self-select text to develop personal preferences.
    b. Use established criteria to classify, select and evaluate texts to make informed judgments about the quality
    of the pieces.
     
    Information Text
    Key Ideas and Details
     
    1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the
    text.
    2. Determine central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the
    text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.
    3. Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g.,
    through examples or anecdotes).
    Craft and Structure
    4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and
    technical meanings.
    5. Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter or section fits into the overall structure of a text and
    contributes to the development of the ideas.
    6. Determine the author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in
    words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.
    8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by
    reasons and evidence from claims that are not.
    9. Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by
    and a biography on the same person).
    a. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic, as well as culture, to think analytically,
    address problems creatively, and advocate persuasively.
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band
    proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
     
    Writing
     
    The following standards for 6-12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help endure that students gain
    adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Each year in their writing, students should
    demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the
    development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources.
    Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further
    develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.
     
    Text Types and Purposes
     
    1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
    a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly
    b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and
    demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text..
    c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
    d. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.
    2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through
    the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
    a. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition,
    classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics
    (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other
    information and examples.
    c. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
    d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
    f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation
    presented.
    3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant
    descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
    a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or
    characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
    b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences, events
    and/ characters.
    c. Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signals shifts from
    one time frame or setting to another.
    d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details and sensory language to convey
    experiences and events.
    e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
    Production and Distribution of Writing
    4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to
    task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3
    above.)
    a. Produce text (print or nonprint) that explores a variety of cultures and perspectives.
    5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by
    planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (editing for conventions should demonstrate
    command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 6).
    6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate
    with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in
    a single sitting.
     
    Research to Build and Present Knowledge
     
    7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry
    when appropriate.
    8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and
    quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic
    bibliographic information for sources.
    9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    a. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or
    genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to
    similar themes and topics”).
    b. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific
    claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are
    not”).
    Range of Writing
    10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time
    frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
    Responding to Literature
    11. Create and present a text or art work in response to a literary work.
    a. Develop a perspective or theme supported by relevant details.
    b. Recognize and illustrate social, historical, and cultural features in the presentation of literary texts.
    c. Create poetry, stories, plays, and other literary forms (e.g., videos, art work).
    Speaking and Listening
    The following standards for 6-12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain
    adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet
    each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understanding mastered in preceding grades.
     
    Comprehension and Collaboration
     
    1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with
    diverse partners on grade 6 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that
    preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under
    discussion.
    b. Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as
    needed.
    c. Pose and respond to specific questions by elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute
    to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
    d. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through
    reflection and paraphrasing.
    e. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different perspectives and cultural
    backgrounds.
    2. Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats, (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and orally) and
    explain how it contributes to a topic, text or issue under study.
    a. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic, as well as culture, to think
    analytically, address problems creatively, and advocate persuasively.
    3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are not supported by reasons
    and evidence from claims that are not.
    Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
    4. Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and suing pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to
    accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
    5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, sound, music, images) and visual displays in presentations to
    clarify information.
    6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or
    appropriate.
     
    Language
     
    The following standards for grades 6-12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that
    students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the
    grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and
    understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are
    particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly
    sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk(*).
     
    Conventions of Standard English
     
    1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
    a. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
    b. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
    c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.*
    d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., one’s unclear or ambiguous antecedents).*
    e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and
    identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.*
    2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when
    writing.
    a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.*
    b. Spell correctly.
     
    Knowledge of Language
     
    3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
    a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.*
    b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.*
    Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
    4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6
    reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in
    a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a
    word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
    c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to
    find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning or tis part of speech.
    5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
    a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
    b. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to
    better understand each of the words.
    c. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions)
    (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).
    6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases,
    gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.