• 9th-10th Grade Common Learning Standards
    ELA
     
    Literature
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Key Ideas and Details
     
    1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly
    as well as inferences drawn from the text.
    2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the
    course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details;
    provide an objective summary of the text.
    3. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop
    over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the
    theme.
     
    Craft and Structure
     
    4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative
    and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on
    meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a
    formal or informal tone).
    5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it
    (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as
    mystery, tension, or surprise.
    6. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from
    outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums,
    including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux
    Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).
    a. Analyze works by authors or artists who represent diverse world cultures.
    8. (Not applicable to literature)
    9. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how
    Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a
    play by Shakespeare).
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and
    poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at
    the high end of the range.
    Responding to Literature
    11. Interpret, analyze, and evaluate narratives, poetry, and drama, aesthetically and ethically by
    making connections t other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, eras, personal events and
    situations.
     
    Information Text
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Key Ideas and Details
     
    1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly
    as well as inferences drawn from the text. a. Develop factual, interpretive, and evaluative
    questions for further exploration of the topic(s).
    2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text,
    including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective
    summary of the text.
    3. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in
    which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that
    are drawn between them.
     
    Craft and Structure
     
    4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative,
    connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices
    on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a
    newspaper).
    5. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular
    sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
    6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses
    rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in
    both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
    8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the
    reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and
    fallacious reasoning.
    9. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s
    Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s
    “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts. a.
    Read, annotate, and analyze informational texts on topics related to diverse and
    non-traditional cultures and viewpoints.
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text
    complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
    By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades
    9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
     
    Writing
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Text Types and Purposes
     
    1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid
    reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Explore and inquire into areas of interest to
    formulate an argument.
    a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and
    create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims,
    reasons, and evidence.
    b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out
    the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge
    level and concerns.
    c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion,
    and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and
    evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and
    conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument
    presented.
    2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and
    information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis
    of content.
    a. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important
    connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures,
    tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    b. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions,
    concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the
    audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create
    cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the
    topic.
    e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and
    conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information
    or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
    3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique,
    well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    a. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation,
    establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters;
    create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple
    plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    c. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create
    a coherent whole.
    d. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid
    picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or
    resolved over the course of the narrative.
    f. Adapt voice, awareness of audience, and use of language to accommodate a variety of
    cultural contexts.
     
    Production and Distribution of Writing
     
    4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are
    appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are
    defined in standards 1–3 above.)
    5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a
    new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and
    audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3
    up to and including grades 9–10 on page 68.)
    6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared
    writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to
    display information flexibly and dynamically.
    Research to Build and Present Knowledge
    7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a
    self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate;
    synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject
    under investigation.
    a. Explore topics dealing with different cultures and world viewpoints.
    8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using
    advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the
    research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas,
    avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
    9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and
    research.
    a. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on
    and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme
    or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”)
    b. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate
    the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and
    the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).
     
    Range of Writing
     
    10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and
    shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and
    audiences.
     
    Responding to Literature
     
    11. Create literary texts that demonstrate knowledge and understanding of a wide variety of texts
    of recognized literary merit.
    a. Engage in a wide range of prewriting experiences, such as using a variety of visual
    representations, to express personal, social, and cultural connections and insights.
    b. Identify, analyze, and use elements and techniques of various genres of literature.
    c. Develop critical and interpretive texts from more than one perspective, including historical
    and cultural.
    d. Create poetry, stories, plays, and other literary forms (e.g. videos, art work).
     
    Speaking and Listening
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Comprehension and Collaboration
     
    1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
    groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues,
    building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly
    draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic
    or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    b. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal
    consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and
    deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
    c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current
    discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the
    discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
    d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and
    disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding
    and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
    e. Seek to understand other perspectives and cultures and communicate effectively with
    audiences or individuals from varied backgrounds.
    2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually,
    quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
    3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying
    any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
    Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
    4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such
    that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance,
    and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
    5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive
    elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence
    and to add interest.
    6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English
    when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9–10 Language standards 1 and 3 on pages 68
    for specific expectations.)
     
    Language
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Conventions of Standard English
     
    1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when
    writing or speaking.
    a. Use parallel structure.
    b. Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional,
    absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey
    specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
    2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation,
    and spelling when writing.
    a. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related
    independent clauses.
    b. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
    c. Spell correctly.
     
    Knowledge of Language
     
    3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to
    make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or
    listening.
    a. Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA
    Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
    Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
    4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases
    based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position
    or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or
    parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).
    c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
    thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or
    clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
    d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking
    the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
    5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word
    meanings.
    a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role
    in the text.
    b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
    6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases,
    sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness
    level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a
    word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.