• 11th-12th Grade Common Learning Standards
    ELA
     
    Literature
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Key Ideas and Details
     
    1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly
    as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves
    matters uncertain.
    2. Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over
    the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a
    complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.
    3. Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a
    story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are
    introduced and developed).
     
    Craft and Structure
     
    4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative
    and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and
    tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging,
    or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)
    5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g.,
    the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic
    resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.
    6. Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in
    a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of
    a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text.
    (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.) a. Analyze
    multiple interpretations of full-length works by authors who represent diverse world cultures.
    8. (Not applicable to literature)
    9. Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational
    works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat
    similar themes or topics.
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and
    poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed
    at the high end of the range.
    By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and
    poems at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and
    proficiently.
     
    Responding to Literature
     
    11. Interpret, analyze, and evaluate narratives, poetry, and drama, aesthetically and
    philosophically by making connections t other texts, ideas, cultural perspectives, eras
    personal events, and situations.
    a. Self-select text to respond and develop innovative perspectives.
    b.Establish and use criteria to classify, select, and evaluate texts to make informed
    judgments about the quality of the pieces.
     
    Information Text
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Key Ideas and Details
     
    1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly
    as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves
    matters uncertain. a. Develop factual, interpretive, and evaluative questions for further
    exploration of the topic(s).
    2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course
    of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis;
    provide an objective summary of the text.
    3. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals,
    ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
    Craft and Structure
    4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative,
    connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of
    a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist
    No. 10).
    5. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition
    or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.
    6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly
    effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty
    of the text.
    Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
    7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats
    (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a
    problem.
    8. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of
    constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority
    opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public
    advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses).
    9. Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. documents of
    historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble
    to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their
    themes, purposes, and rhetorical features. a. Read, annotate, and analyze informational texts
    on topics related to diverse and non-traditional cultures and viewpoints.
    Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
    10. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text
    complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
    By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades
    11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.
     
    Writing
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Text Types and Purposes
     
    1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid
    reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Explore and inquire into areas of interest to
    formulate an argument.
    a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s),
    distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that
    logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
    b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant
    evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that
    anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
    c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the
    text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between
    reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
    d. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and
    conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument
    presented.
    2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and
    information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis
    of content.
    a. Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new
    element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g.,
    headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding
    comprehension.
    b. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended
    definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to
    the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
    c. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text,
    create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
    d. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor,
    simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
    e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and
    conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
    f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information
    or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
    3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique,
    well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
    a. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its
    significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or
    characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
    b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple
    plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
    c. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create
    a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of
    mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
    d. Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid
    picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
    e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or
    resolved over the course of the narrative.
    f. Adapt voice, awareness of audience, and use of language to accommodate a variety of
    cultural contexts.
     
    Production and Distribution of Writing
     
    4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are
    appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are
    defined in standards 1–3 above.)
    5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a
    new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and
    audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3
    up to and including grades 11–12).
    6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared
    writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.
    Research to Build and Present Knowledge
    7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a
    self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate;
    synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under
    investigation.
    a. Explore topics dealing with different cultures and world viewpoints.
    8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using
    advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms
    of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain
    the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a
    standard format for citation.
    9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and
    research.
    a. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of
    eighteenth-, nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American
    literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or
    topics”).
    b. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate
    the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles
    and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and
    dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g.,
    The Federalist, presidential addresses]”).
     
    Range of Writing
     
    10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and
    shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and
    audiences.
     
    Responding to Literature
     
    11. Create interpretive and responsive texts to demonstrate knowledge and a sophisticated
    understanding of the connections between life and the literary work.
    a. Engage in using a wide range of prewriting strategies, such as visual representations and
    the creation of factual and interpretive questions, to express personal, social and cultural
    connections and insights.
    b. Identify, analyze, and use elements and techniques of various genres of literature, such
    as allegory, stream of consciousness, irony, and ambiguity, to affect meaning.
    c. Develop innovative perspectives on texts, including historical, cultural, sociological, and
    psychological contexts.
    d. Create poetry, stories, plays, and other literary forms (e.g. videos, art work).
    Speaking and Listening
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Comprehension and Collaboration
     
    1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in
    groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics, texts, and issues,
    building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
    a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study;
    explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research
    on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
    b. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making, set clear
    goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as needed.
    c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and
    evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or
    challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
    d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence
    made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what
    additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the
    task.
    e. Seek to understand other perspectives and cultures and communicate effectively with
    audiences or individuals from varied backgrounds.
    2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,
    visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems,
    evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among
    the data.
    3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing
    the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.
    Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
    4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct
    perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing
    perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are
    appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.
    5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive
    elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence
    and to add interest.
    6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English
    when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11–12 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 68
    for specific expectations.)
     
    Language
     
    The College and Career Ready (CCR) anchor standards and high school grade-specific
    standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
    providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.
     
    Conventions of Standard English
     
    1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when
    writing or speaking.
    a. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and
    is sometimes contested.
    b. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g.,
    Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American Usage) as
    needed.
    2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation,
    and spelling when writing.
    a. Observe hyphenation conventions.
    b. Spell correctly.
    Knowledge of Language
    3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to
    make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or
    listening.
    a. Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance
    as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.
    Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
    4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases
    based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
    a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position
    or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or
    parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
    c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
    thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or
    clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
    d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking
    the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
    5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word
    meanings.
    a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze their role in
    the text.
    b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
    6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases,
    sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness
    level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a
    word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.