Sixth Grade Common Core Learning Standards
MATH
Ratios & Proportional Relationships
Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems.
1. Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two
quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2
wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.”
2. Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b 0, and use rate language in the
context of a ratio relationship. For example, “This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so
there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per
hamburger.”
3. Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables
or equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.
a. Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole-number measurements, find missing
values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.
b. Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, if it
took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what
rate were lawns being mowed?
c. Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity);
solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent.
d. Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when
multiplying or dividing quantities.
Number System
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by
fractions.
1. Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by
fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a
story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship
between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general,
(a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally?
How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length
3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi?
Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.
2. Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.
3. Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each
operation.
4. Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common
multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two
whole numbers 1–100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common
factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2).
Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.
5. Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite
directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits,
positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world
contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.
6. Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate
axes
familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number
coordinates.
a. Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number
line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., –(–3) = 3, and
that 0 is its own opposite.
b. Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate
plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are
related by reflections across one or both axes.
c. Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line
diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane.
7. Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.
a. Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a
number line diagram. For example, interpret –3 > –7 as a statement that –3 is located to the right of –
7 on a number line oriented from left to right.
b. Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real-world contexts. For
example, write –3 °C > –7 °C to express the fact that –3 °C is warmer than –7 °C.
c. Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line;
interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real-world situation. For
example, for an account balance of –30 dollars, write |–30| = 30 to describe the size of the debt in
dollars.
d. Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize
that an account balance less than –30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars.
8. Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate
plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first
coordinate or the same second coordinate.
Expressions & Equations
Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.
1. Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.
2. Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.
a. Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For
example, express the calculation “Subtract y from 5” as 5 – y.
b. Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient,
coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the
expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two
terms.
c. Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from
formulas used in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving
whole-number exponents,
in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of
Operations).
For example, use the formulas V = s3 and A = 6 s2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube
with sides of length s = 1/2.
3. Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply the
distributive property to the expression 3 (2 + x) to produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the
distributive property to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression 6 (4x + 3y);
apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the equivalent expression 3y.
4. Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same
number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y
and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for.
Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.
5. Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values
from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine
whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.
6. Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or
mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending
on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.
7. Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p =
q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.
8. Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world
or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many
solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams.
Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent
variables.
9. Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one
another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of
the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the
dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For
example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances
and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.
Geometry
Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume.
1. Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing
into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context
of solving real-world and mathematical problems.
2. Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit
cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be
found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find
volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world
and mathematical problems.
3. Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find
the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply
these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.
4. Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the
nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving realworld
and mathematical problems.
Statistics & Probability
Develop understanding of statistical variability.
1. Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question
and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but
“How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability
in students’ ages.
2. Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can
be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.
3. Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a
single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.
Summarize and describe distributions.
4. Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.
5. Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:
a. Reporting the number of observations.
b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its
units of measurement.
c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range
and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations
from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.
d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and
the context in which the data were gathered.